Adiposis Dolorosa (Dercum, Anders Disease)
Adiposis dolorosa is a rare disorder of multiple painful subcutaneous growths of adipose tissue. It is also known as Dercum disease, Ander syndrome, morbus Dercum, adipose tissue rheumatism, adiposalgia, or lipomatosis dolorosa. This disease was first discovered in the late 1800s by American neurologist Francis Xavier Dercum. It is classified into 4 types which include generalized diffuse, generalized nodular, localized nodular, and juxta-articular forms. The generalized diffuse type presents with widespread painful adipose tissue with no apparent lipomas. The generalized nodular type presents with widespread, painful adipose tissue that is more painful in the vicinity of lipomas. In the localized nodular type, the pain is restricted to areas within and around lipomas. Lastly, the juxta-articular type presents as painful solitary adipose tissue near large joints. The diagnosis of adiposis dolorosa is made clinically and is a diagnosis of exclusion. The proposed criteria for the diagnosis includes chronic pain of the subcutaneous tissue for over 3 months in overweight or obese patient, though the criteria still need to be validated. The pain is often disabling and resistant to treatment. The disease is associated with weakness and psychiatric symptoms such as depression. Other associated symptoms include fatty deposits, easy bruising, sleep disturbances, impaired memory, difficulty concentrating, anxiety, rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, diabetes, bloating, constipation, fatigue, and joint pain.
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